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Full text of "Political Science Of The State"

THE STATE'S RELATIONS TO RELIGION.            473

$257.
The power of the state to legislate in this sphere was un-
opmions after the questioned, and its use, as we have seen, con-
rise of Christianity. stant QR one occasion^ however, after Chris-
tianity had acquired a strong foothold in Africa, a heretical
sect almost struck out a new theory of the relations between
church and state. The Donatists in Africa, having separated
from and denounced the orthodox church on the ground that
it allowed persons who had given up the sacred books in
Diocletian's persecution to administer baptism and other rites,
and had thus acknowledged that the outward form in their
hands was valid; a great controversy was kindled, and, at
length, the civil power intervened. From mildness the offi-
cers of the state passed over to persecution of the Donatists,
first under Constans (A.D. 347), afterwards under Honorius
(414), when Augustin approved of the resort to violence.*
The Donatists, under their sense of injury, appear to have
discovered and proclaimed the wrong of using force in mat-
ters pertaining to opinion, and to have approached the prin-
ciple of a separation between church and state. Neander (ii.,
212, Torrey's Transl.) remarks that "the point of view first
set forth in a clear light by Christianity, when it made religion
the common good of all mankind and raised it up above all
political restrictions, was by the Donatists manfully asserted,
in opposition to a theory of ecclesiastical rights at variance
with the spirit of the gospel, and which had sprung up out of
a new mixture of ecclesiastical with political interests. They
could not succeed so well in unfolding the relations of the
church to the state [as in opposing force in religion], for here
they easily passed over from one extreme to the other. If
* In a lost work, centra part. Donati^ lib. ii.. he had said that
" he did not approve of heretics being forced into communion by the
secular power." Now (retract^ ii., 5), he gives as a reason for his
change of opinion, that then he had not learned by experience how
much evil they would dare to do, owing to their impunity, nor how-
much they would be benefited by "diligent discipline."